article accepted in GLIA
Astrocyte-specific activation of TNFR2 promotes oligodendrocyte maturation by secretion of leukemia inhibitory factor
Roman Fischer 1 *, Harald Wajant 2, Roland Kontermann 1, Klaus Pfizenmaier 1, Olaf Maier 1
1Institute of Cell Biology and Immunology, University Stuttgart, Allmandring 31, 70569 Stuttgart, Germany
2Division of Molecular Internal Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine II, University Hospital Würzburg, Röntgenring 11, 97070 Würzburg, Germany
*Corresponding author: Tel: +49 (0)711 - 685 - 69303; Fax: +49 (0)711 - 685 - 67484; e-mail: email@example.com
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and its receptors TNFR1 and TNFR2 have pleiotropic effects in neurodegenerative disorders. For example, while TNFR1 mediates neurodegenerative effects in multiple sclerosis, TNFR2 is protective and contributes to remyelination. The exact mode of TNFR2 action, however, is poorly understood. Here, we show that TNFR2-mediated activation of the PI3K-PKB/Akt pathway in primary astrocytes increased the expression of neuroprotective genes, including that encoding the neurotrophic cytokine LIF. To investigate whether intercellular signaling between TNFR2-stimulated astrocytes and oligodendrocytes plays a role in oligodendrocyte maturation, we established an astrocyte-oligodendrocyte co-culture model, composed of primary astrocytes from huTNFR2 transgenic (tgE1335) mice and oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) from wildtype mice, capable of differentiating into mature myelinating oligodendrocytes. In this model, selective stimulation of human TNFR2 on astrocytes, promoted differentiation of co-cultured OPCs to myelin basic protein (MBP)-positive mature oligodendrocytes. Addition of LIF neutralizing antibodies inhibited oligodendrocyte differentiation, indicating a crucial role of TNFR2-induced astrocyte derived LIF for oligodendrocyte maturation.